Physical development of the child corresponds to all the phenomena of growth.
They concern the size and weight, but also the evolution of different body parts, organs and viscera, and bones.
Physical development is not homogeneous.
Very fast in the womb and during the first three years, then slows to flare at the beginning of the pubertal period.
Growth until birth
It is very fast since starting from a microscopic cell; the fetus reaches 28 weeks to 35 cm, 40 cm to 45 cm and 32 weeks to 36 weeks.
Her weight gain is the same as 300g at 20 weeks; it reached 1000 g at 28 weeks and 2000 g at 34 weeks.
At birth, the average size of a child to term is 50 cm, weight between 3000 and 3500 g.
The head is particularly well developed and represents a quarter of the whole body.
Head circumference is about 35 cm.
The members are short, and radiography shows only three points of ossification at the bottom of femur, tibia and the top of the foot.
The growth in the first year
It should be monitored regularly during the consultations of PMI (Protection Maternelle et Infantile) with report data on the curves of the health record of the child.
It increases rapidly to 75 cm on average on the first anniversary, between 69 and 80 cm for 95% of children.
These 25 cm of growth represent half the size of birth.
Weight gain over the first year is 6 to 7 kg to an average of 10 kg on the first anniversary, between 7.5 and 12 kg for 95% of children.
This gain is not uniform since it is 30 g / day in the first quarter, 20 g / day in the second, 15 g / day in the third and 10 g / day in the fourth.
This leads the infant to double its birth weight by five months and triple it to a year.
The most important thing is not so much the amount of weight gain but rather followed its regularity on the curve.
Stall signals up excess food likely stall down is often a sign of disease.
The brain continues to grow and the bones of the skull are not yet welded it in place it needs.
Growth is 12 cm on average, to reach 47 cm on the first anniversary, from 43 to 49 cm for 95% of children.
A rapid increase may be the first sign of a hydro or macrocephaly.
A ralentissemnt can result from a premature sealing of the skull or delay of brain development.
The first tooth appears, on average five to six months with large individual differences, but we have never seen children grow up without teeth.
There is an average of eight teeth at one year, sometimes just one.
He has ten points of ossification at the end of the first year, including those that appear in the upper limb.
The second year
The gain medium stature was 12 cm, the weight increases on average by 2.5 kg but individual variations are sharper.
We consider that two years a child has reached half its final size.
By comparison, the skull has slowed down its growth by taking only 2 cm further.
This gives the head a smaller relative volume and facilitates walking and standing, especially since the lower stretch proportionally more.
The first sixteen teeth are removed; three additional points of ossification have appeared.
The skin has matured, losing some of its fat layer.
The obesity acquired at this age is often permanent.
The third year
In three years the average weight is 14.5 kg, the average size is 95 cm, head circumference of 50 cm.
All the teeth are removed.
There are 17 new ossifications points, 30 in total.
The third anniversary marks the end of childhood and the transition to childhood.
The fourth year at puberty, or the school year minimum, the rate of growth has been steady with 5 to 6 cm / year and 2 to 2.5 kg / year.
Children this age are usually slender, but individual variations become very important.
The proportion of head / rest of the body continue to fall, head circumference 53 cm up to 10 years.
The milk teeth are gradually replaced by permanent teeth.
There are a total of 47 points of ossification just before puberty and bone age determination measure, to differentiate between capital growth retardation and precocious puberty.
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